MA in LEGAL TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING
· на английском языке
· на юридическом факультете РУДН
The Master in Legal Translation and Interpreting (MLTI) responds to the high demand for translators and interpreters in the field of Law.
The academic track combines the theoretical and the applied foci. The professional specialization track provides training in the legal field of translation and interpretation.
The research track trains students for access to the doctoral field of Comparative Linguistics and Translation Studies.
2. The language of instructionis English.
3. Language Pairs:
The program develops students' Knowledge, Skills and Abilities to interpret and translate legal texts, working within the following language pair combinations:
English – French,
A second foreign language (Spanish, French, Chinese, Russian) for legal translation practice course is subject to students’ choice.
4. Entry requirements for potential candidates –
Exam on Translation skills(English – a second Language)
The Master in Legal Translation and Interpreting accepts graduates with BA degrees.
Full time program, including face-to-face sessions and students’ self study
6. Total workloadis equal to 120 credits
On completing this MA degree program students will acquire the following generic and specialized professional competences:
· abilities to work effectively, ethically, safely, to manage information processing, to planproper assignments and appropriate allocation of resources, to set priorities to take account of short- and long-term needs, to set targets and priorities, to establish sound procedures to manage and monitor assignments or project, to achieve tasks and assignments within the required timescale, to act in variable contexts;
· abilitiesto influenceothers by expressing self effectively in a group and in one to one situations, to present arguments that can be supported by facts, to use different approaches and influencing techniques that are appropriate to the people or situation;
· abilitiesto communicate effectivelyandconvey information appropriately and accurately, to use an appropriate approach to questioning in order to gain information from which to draw conclusions and/or assist in the decision making, to show by a range of verbal and non-verbal signals that the information being received is understood, toexercise appropriate judgment;
· abilitiesto act effectively within the team, todevelop appropriate relationships with academic staff, peers, colleagues, customers and suppliers at all levels within the organisation, to recognise and respect different perspectives and appreciates the benefits of being open to the ideas and views of others, to adopt a mature, direct and up front style in dealing with conflicts;
· abilities to plan and control one’s own learning , to develop the skills and competencies of self, peers and colleagues through learning and development activities related to current and future roles;
· abilities to carryout analysis and synthesis, to apply knowledge in practice, research skills development.
Specialized professional competences:
· translation service provision competence:
in interpersonal dimension ( abilities to follow market requirements and job profiles, to deal with clients/potential clients (marketing), to organize and manage one's time, to comply with corporate policies and standards applicable to the provision of a translation service, to comply with professional ethics);
in production dimension( abilities to create and offer a translation appropriate to the client's request, to define stages and strategies for the legal interpreting and translation, to define and evaluate legal translation problems and find appropriate solutions, to master the appropriate metalanguage, to analyse and evaluate legal translation strategies and decisions, techniques and strategies for proofreading and revision, to establish and monitor quality standards);
· language competence( mastering grammatical, lexical and idiomatic as well as the graphic and typographic conventions of legal language A and one's other working languages (B, C), sensitivity to changes in legal language domain and developments in languages (useful for exercising creativity);
· intercultural competence:
in sociolinguistic dimension (abilities to recognise function and meaning in legal language variations (national, geographical, historical, stylistic, ), mastering the rules and techniques for interaction relating to a specific community, including non-verbal elements (useful knowledge for negotiation), ability to produce a register appropriate to a given situation, for a particular document (written) or speech (oral);
in textual dimension (abilities to understand and analyse the macrostructure of legal discourse and its overall coherence, to grasp the presuppositions, the implicit, allusions, stereotypes and intertextual nature of legal discourse, to describe and evaluate one's problems with comprehension and define strategies to resolve those problems, to extract and summarise the essential information in a text, to recognise and identify elements, values and references proper to the cultures represented, to compose a text in accordance with the conventions of the genre and rhetorical standards, to draft, rephrase, restructure, condense, and post-edit rapidly and well (in languages A and B);
· information mining competences(ability to identify one's information and documentation requirements
- mastering strategies for documentary and terminological research, to extract and process relevant information for the given task, mastering criteria to evaluate the reliability of documentary sources, ability to use ICT tools and search engines effectively, e.g. terminology software, electronic corpora, electronic dictionaries);
· thematic competence in legal domain( abilities to search for appropriate information to gain a better grasp of the thematic aspects of a document, to develop one's knowledge in legal branches and applications, mastering systems of concepts, methods of reasoning, presentation, controlled language, terminology, etc.);
· technological competence ( abilities to use effectively and rapidly and to integrate a range of software to assist in correction, translation, terminology, layout, documentary research, including tools for text processing, spell and grammar check; abilities to work with translation memory, terminology database, voice recognition software application, abilities to adapt to and familiarise oneself with new tools, particularly for the translation of multimedia and audiovisual material, knowledge of possibilities and limits of MT, ability to prepare and produce a translation in different formats and for different technical media).
8. Academic Contents
General Scientific Disciplines Module - 30 credits
1. History and Methodology of Humanities and Sciences - 3 credits
2. Pedagogics and Psychology of Higher Education - 2 credits
3. Philosophy - 1 credit
4. Translation Theory in Interdisciplinary Context - 2 credits
5. Theory and Practice of Cross Cultural Communication in Various Social Contexts - 2 credits
6. Methodology of Foreign Languages Teaching-1 credit
7. Didactics of Specialized Translation Skills Training - 1 credit
8. Language Policy in Global Context - 1 credit
9. Language and Law in Global Context - 2 credits
10. Discourse Analysis: Argumentation and Reasoning - 2 credits
11. Translation Practice Course (1st language) - 2 credits
12. Translation Practice Course (2nd language) - 2 credits
13. Editing& Proofreading - 2 credits
14. Translator’s Professional Ethics-2 credits
15. Contrastive Analysis of Terminology - 2 credits
16. Legal Discourse in Bilingual Context -2credits
Optional Subjects -2 credits
17. Language and Culture mediation
18. Semantics and Pragmatics
19. Cognitive Linguistics
Professional Disciplines Module - 30 credits
20. General Linguistics and History of Linguistic Studies - 3 credits
21. Quantitative Linguistics and Information Technology - 2 credits
22. Theory of Legal Translation - 2 credits
23. Legal Documents Translation - 6 credits
24. Scientific Translation in Jurisprudence-1 credit
25. Legal Interpreting Course - 4 credits
26. Legal Case Studies in Bilingual Context - 1 credit
27. Computer-assisted Tools for Legal Translation - 2 credits
Introduction to Legal Knowledge in English (7 credits),
28. Common Law and Civil Law: comparative perspective- 1 credit
29. UK and USA Legal systems- 1 credit
30. Introduction to Constitutional Law in Bilingual Context - 1 credit
31. Introduction to Business Law in Bilingual Context - 1 credit
32. Introduction to Financial Law in Bilingual Context - 1 credit
33. Introduction to EU Law - 1 credit
34. Introduction to International Law - 1 credit
Optional Subjects -2 credits
35. Court Interpreting
36. Simultaneous Interpreting
Internship -14 credits
Research Work - 38 credits
FinalStateQualification Exam and MA Dissertation Defense -8 credits
9. COURSE OUTLINE
1.History and Methodology of Humanities & Sciences
This course aims to convey to students a critical understanding and appreciation of the historical development and important ideas of medieval and modern Humanities and Sciences and their methods, proceedings and discoveries.This course introduces students to different issues relating to social science methodology and fieldwork methods in linguistics research. Students deal with methodological questions concerning quantitative and qualitative research designs. Part of the course involves an evaluation of basic assumptions underpinning research in linguistics, particularly in the area of bilingualism, multilingualism and translation. This entails a critical evaluation of research methodology used in linguistics research. The aim of the course is to equip students with the skill to evaluate and conduct their own research.
2. Pedagogics and Psychology of Higher Education
The course introduces Pedagogy and Psychology of Higher education as a field of scientific knowledge.A system of Higher education and basic tendencies of its development are analyzed. The key modules include basic theories of educational work in higher educational institutions, methods of pedagogic interaction between an instructor and students, educational and psychological mechanisms of educational activity, pedagogic activity and a personality of an instructor in higher educational institution.
The course aims at providing an overview of philosophical thinking in general, key doctrines and basic ideas, insights into the philosophy of language. The main objectives are to make students become familiar with major philosophical problems, to help students acquire an initial command of philosophical language, to consider the theory of interpretation and hermeneutics in regard to the translation process.
4. Translation Theory in Interdisciplinary Context
The course provides an overview of Translation Studies development, focuses on contemporary translation theories, highlights interdisciplinary nature of translation, its relation to cross cultural communication and mediation, domain-specific areas of interpreting and translation. The course provides for theoretical framework that is relevant for specialized translation. The course focuses on the translation process and its stages, source text analysis, translation method and procedures in regard to different social and professional contexts. The fundamental concepts in Translation such as equivalence and translatability are discussed. Social, cultural, professional communicative contexts are taken into account to choose the relevant analytical tools to identify translation problems, strategies and procedures required to make translation decisions systematically.
5. Theory and Practice of Cross Cultural Communication in Various Social Contexts
The course accentuates the nature of cross-cultural communication, its historical background, and the use of it in various contexts. Furthermore, this course covers fundamental theories of cross-cultural communication, the research trend of it, and the relationship between language, identity, and communication in different social context. This course focuses on how key cultural values are embedded in language use, and how these hidden assumptions can impede effective communication across cultural groups. Aspects such as organization of discourse, preferred mode of communication, nonverbal communication, intonation patterns, politeness, address terms, greetings, and requests are examined across cultures. The analysis on how these relate to the broader definition of cultural values in terms of collectivism versus individualism is well presented. The objective is to develop students' sensitivity to cross-cultural variation in communication and to provide a theoretical framework for interpreting variation. Ultimately, we expect to help students enhance their cross-cultural sensitivity and cross-cultural communication competence.
6. Methodology of Foreign Languages Teaching
The course comprises a wide variety of approaches and methods of language teaching: from teaching trends in the early 20th century to current interactive communicative approaches. Special focus is laid on the Competency-Based Language Teaching and on Language for Specific Purposes training. This course offers a range of theoretical models of second language acquisition and evaluate their validity in explaining patterns of second language acquisition. Students also explore influences on the process of second language acquisition such as the effects of the first language, the age of acquisition, motivation, aptitude, input factors and individual earner strategies. Similarities and differences between first and second language acquisition are also discussed. The course covers lesson planning and course design strategies, tools for assessment and quality control. As a final project, students draft their own detailed lesson plan incorporating theory and practice.
7. Didactics for Specialized Translation and Interpreting Skills Training
The course is aimed at examining the process of translation and interpreting training. The course shows how it relates to the field of specialized translation. Students also inquire into various pedagogical philosophies, approaches to T&I Training, learn to use various materials to boost student learning, and explore the methods by which the process of translation can be taught. Practices of higher education institutions and in-house translators’ training from different universities are well presented.
8.Language Policy in Global Context
The course introduces the concept of language policy, focuses on non-linguistic factors (political, demographic, social, religious, cultural, psychological, bureaucratic, and so on) that intervene in the language practices.This course also focuses on issues central to the phenomenon of bilingualism and multilingualism. This course emphasizes how social factors influence the language and the role the language plays in reflecting social categories such as status, ethnicity and gender. Students are trained to observe and identify linguistic variables which reveal the nature and function of speech variation within and across speech communities. The course comprises variation in language styles and registers, and language variation reflecting social class, gender and ethnic group. Students study changes in language status over time, language shift, language maintenance, language death and the emergence of new languages.The course provides for examples of both implicit and explicit examples of language use and evolution at the national and international levels, including EU multilingualism policy and practices. Such topics, as Language as a human right, and interpreting & translation into a national language as a human right are in the focus as well.
9.Language and Law in Global Context
The course presents an emerging field of Linguistics that is the interface between linguistics and the law, that is Forensic Linguistics. This course outlines the history and development of Forensic Linguistics from its beginnings in the 1950's and 1960's to the present day. The course lays emphasis on forensic language, courtroom discourse, cross-cultural/cross-linguistic differences in legal settings, the significance of linguistic evidence in resolving litigations and crimes in the judicial system.
10. Discourse Analysis: Argumentation and Reasoning
The course reviews different approaches to discourse studies, aims at consolidating students’ understanding of concepts and methods of discourse analysis in order to apply this knowledge to a translation task. The concept of institutional discourse is studied in detail, its key parameters are analyzed to be taken into consideration for specialized translation purposes.
Special emphasis is laid on the argumentation and reasoning in legal discourse, its generally accepted modes of reasoning: rule-based reasoning; analogical reasoning; and policy reasoning. The interdependence among these three modes of legal reasoning is outlined. Students learn how lawyers use narrative devices to complement the conventional modes of legal reasoning and make their arguments more persuasive. Students learn what types of materials constitute acceptable sources of authority in legal discourse, as well as the different hierarchies within which those authorities exist.
11-12 .Translation Practice Courses (1st, 2nd foreign languages, pairs of languages are subject to student’s choice, the minimum number of students in the group is 8).
The courses aredesigned to help students to acquire practical interpreting and translation (I&T) skills through hands-on experience of translation and interpreting with a set of texts in education, social work, medical field, media, modern fiction extracts. The courses cover both translation and interpreting skills as they are compatible and complementary skills. The courses aim to help students to acquire fundamental skills needed for translation and consecutive interpreting. The courses do not include lectures but students have classes in different language pairs.
13. Editing & Proofreading
The course provides for instruction and practice to improve proofreading and editing skills. Students detect and correct errors in capitalization, content, format, grammar, keyboarding, number usage, punctuation, spelling, word division and word usage. Students use standard revision and editing symbols to edit for clarity and conciseness. The course makes students aware of proofreading and editing responsibility, helps them understand peculiarities of poof reading and editing, apply appropriate references.
14. Translator’s Professional Ethics
The course introduces the concept of Ethics and the Professional Code of Conduct in interpreting and translation. The key parameters are thoroughly analyzed. As translators work primarily from a recorded language and interpreters from a live language, and besides both translators and interpreters can specialize in different social contexts the above roles can entail ethical dilemmas for translators and interpreters. The examples of national Codes of Ethics are compared.
15. Contrastive Analysis of Terminology
The course provides tools for comparison of terminologies across languages that are necessary for purposes of compiling bilingual dictionaries and thesauri and of teaching specialized translation. Divergences between legal terminologies in different languages are studied, and the importance of differences in the use of terminological systems for bilingual dictionary is highlighted. The course gives students an opportunity to learn the ways of the bilingual legal text processing, including search for information on synonymic relations between technical and non-technical terms, preference for generic or specific term, grammar and collocation possibilities of technical terms, and the possibilities of abbreviating legal terms.
16. Legal Discourse in Bilingual Context
The course provides a comparative overview of linguistic features of legal discourse in English and in Russian. Any discourse community has its own discourse conventions, and lawyers have done a particularly thorough job of developing theirs. The course explains the notion of Legal discourse in general and then refers to particular topics, such as legal language, legal and legislative writing, legal grammar and vocabulary, terminology, legal genres, etc. The course lays emphasis on distinctive features of legal texts, subdivisions in the language of law, functions of legal texts from a comparative perspective.
17. Language and culture mediation
The course introduces key definitions in the field, provides for assessment of needs and studies, analyses application areas, examines training practices and trajectories. The phenomenon of mediation is analyzed in different paradigms (hermeneutics, law, anthropology, linguistics, etc.)
Special focus is laid on analyzing peculiarities of language mediation and translation.The course offers a multidisciplinary approach by introducing references taken from the social sciences in order to develop reflection on the role of languages and cultures in social cohesion and provides answers to a question hitherto rarely raised in the didactics of languages and cultures, namely the place of cultural mediation itself.
18. Semantics and Pragmatics
This course is an introduction to the study of meaning: linguistic meaning and speaker meaning. Major approaches to the study of lexical and grammatical meaning are reviewed and the role of semantics and pragmatics in grammar is examined. Students are provided with intensive practice in performing semantic analysis using a variety of frameworks such as componential analysis, prototype theory and cognitive semantics. Students also explore and apply the above frameworks to the evaluation of metaphors and linguistic categorization such as noun class systems, kinship terms and color terms across languages.
19 .Cognitive Linguistics
This course examines language from the point of view of cognitive processes. Theoretical language and cognition frameworks are applied in the analysis of language, thought and culture. Students learn about systems of conceptual organization through the study of categorization, metaphors, cultural models and grammar. Other topics include representation of space and time and cognitive motivations for language change and language universals. The approach is multi-disciplinary as proof is drawn from text analysis, language acquisition, language change, psycholinguistic experimentation, among other sources.
20.General Linguistics and History of Linguistic Studies
The course deals with fundamental properties shared by all languages, their similarities and differences. The key linguistic concepts are analyzed in regard to translation process. The History of Linguistic Studies and their trends is highlighted.
21.Quantitative Linguistics and Information Technology
This course provides for an introduction to the key instruments and resources available on the personal computer that can assist the linguist in performing fast and accurate quantitative analyses. Frequency lists, tagging and parsing, concordancing, collocation analysis and applications of Natural Language Processing are discussed. This course is an introduction to the fast growing field of corpus linguistics. Its aim is to familiarize students with key concepts and common methods used in the construction of language corpora, as well as tools that have been developed for searching and using major corpora. Students are provided with wide experience in pre-editing, annotating, and searching corpora. Criteria and methods used for evaluating corpora and analytical tools are covered.
22.Theory of Legal Translation
The course aims to provide students with a systemic understanding of principles and practice of legal translation. The course focuses on the general legal principles which underpin the professional practice of a legal translator. A brief historical overview of legal translation theory is provided. The peculiarities of key translation concepts, tools and strategies in the legal translation process are highlighted. Current discussion on legal translation is analyzed, including the approach to legal translation from a pragmatic legal-linguistic angle and a comparative law perspective. The peculiarity of the equivalence through legal translation is taken into consideration. Special focus is laid on key elements of the descriptive model for legal translation.
23. Legal Documents Translation
The course covers comparative analysis of typical characteristics of contracts, property documents, company and commercial documents in the UK, USA, and Russia/France / Germany /Spain/ China. The course comprises the key principles of the above documents translation and trains students to use proper translation techniques. The course is based on the document analysis. Students are supposed to present translation projects.
24. Scientific Translation in Jurisprudence
The course trains students to translate scientific texts in the jurisprudence domain, highlighting challenges which can arise while translating scientific and specialized texts. The course covers general peculiarities of the scientific functional style. Students are trained to translate research documentation and references in original texts, thus preparing themselves for future work in this field.
25. Legal Interpreting Course
This course is an introduction to skills, ethics and protocols of interpretation used by professional consecutive interpreters. The course focuses on interpretation topics and techniques for legal settings. Topics include ethics, roles of the interpreter, bilingual legal vocabulary, memory development, note taking and non-verbal communication. Upon completion, students should be able to have an understanding of the techniques of consecutive interpreting, and to apply them in a variety of situations and settings. This practical course challenges students’ abilities to interpret in various legal contexts. Students translate from spoken sources, attempting both simultaneous and consecutive translations from recordings of actual speech. The course helps students to achieve proficiency in consecutive interpreting the legal field, learn when and how to assume the different roles of the interpreter, acquire through practice the knowledge to resolve different professional situations that interpreters face in the legal field, manage a wide range of legal terminology.
26. Legal Case Studies in Bilingual Context ( English- Russian)
The course is designed to study cases from different branches of civil and common law with the view to focus on national laws peculiarities that are reflected in the national languages. The course contributes to a better understanding of close relation and interdependence of law and language as far as language and culture mediation in legal domain and translation are concerned.
27. Computer-assisted Tools for Legal Translation
The course introduces students to the growing importance of CAT. The course highlights the key concepts and CAT terminology, looks through the range of CAT tools, including terminology management software, electronic dictionaries, terminology databases, full text search tools, concordances, bytexts, project management software, translation memory tools.
28. Common Law and Civil Law: comparative perspective
The course aims to quickly grasp the basis of the Civil Law system. The course helps students to be familiar with some basic concepts, as well as differences in approach to certain issues. These can be broadly defined as follows: 1) Public v. Private Law: A conceptual distinction that shapes the legal architecture of the Civil Law system; 2) Codes and Case-Law: Civil Lawyers look to the code and commentaries more than cases, and the doctrine of stare decisis (case-law precedent) does not per se apply; 3) Legal Education System: Civil Law is an undergraduate discipline that has a very different format from U.S. post-graduate legal education or U.K.-style undergraduate programs; and 4) Legal Profession: Civil law lawyers often choose particular professional focal areas during or at the end of their legal studies, and they rarely switch professional paths later in their careers. Each of these topics is examined through the course.
29. UK and USA Legal Systems
The course provides for a comparative perspective to overview USAand UK legal systems development, analyzes their key concepts and doctrines. The course lays grounds for comparative analysis of terminology (English-Russian) in regard to the legislative and judicial bodies, their jurisdiction and functions.
30. Introduction to Constitutional Law in Bilingual Context (English-Russian)
The course covers the branches of the governments (judicial, legislative, and executive), provides for a brief outline of the USA federal system. This course introduces the students to the doctrinal foundations of the U.S. and U.K. constitutional documents and examines the governmental institutions and procedures in the two countries. A comparative perspective of the UK, US, RF essentially allows to have a better understanding of constitutional peculiarities.
31. Introduction to Business Law in Bilingual Context (English-Russian)
The course provides for a comparative perspective of introduction to Contract Law, Company Law and Litigation.This course comprises the fundamental principles of contract formation integrating conceptual discussions of practical cases. The course also focuses on the approach to civil law and common law litigation, including court structure, legal professionals, lawsuit initiation and service of process.
32. Introduction to Financial Law in Bilingual Context (English-Russian)
The course introduces basic Financial Law concepts and the rules relating to the process of raising or providing funds or capital or furnishing credit to another person, and the legal framework applicable to investors, depositors or lenders, financial intermediaries, borrowers and lenders, financial instruments, transactions and contracts, markets and exchanges, or even public authorities overseeing that process.
33. Introduction to EU Law
The course covers the institutions of the EU, sources and key issues in EU law, European rights, terminology of treaties, directives and regulations, ECJ judgments and legislation of the European Parliament. The course includes document analysis and legal
34.Introduction to International Law
The course aims to provide students with an understanding of the main dynamics influencing the governance of global affairs. The course focuses on the central legal instruments and texts, the main actors and institutions as well as the main problems that the world faces nowadays, such as notably the ongoing fragmentation and weak enforcement of international law as well as the continuing separation between public and private international law. The course also ponders on new concepts and approaches, often referred to as the global governance debate.
35. Court Interpreting
The course provides for basic training for interpreters about the profession of court interpreting and its unique requirements, offers instruction and study materials to improve interpreter's understanding of court procedure and the legal environment, and also helps students to improve their legal language proficiency. The course comprises techniques students need to develop specific skills required for Court interpreting.
36. Simultaneous Interpreting
The Course is centered on teaching simultaneous interpretation from an array of general and legal speeches delivered by video, specialist guest speakers and members of the teaching faculty. The course involves systematic, immediate individual assessment of participants' performance, grouped feedback in plenary mode to refine topical approaches and strategies, off-line analysis and self-assessment using recordings of the speaker and the student. Interpreting booths and equipment are within students’ reach.
Each student must complete an internship at an approved public institution or company, where they undertake translation of legal documents and texts, as well as day-to-day translation work. Throughout their internship, students take notes of their traineeship, and compile an internship report upon completing their placement.
Each student is required to prepare a course paper on a current research topic relevant to the
curriculum subjects. The purpose of the course paper is to give the student an opportunity to explore topics in the course subject area at a greater depth. The paper also gives the student the chance to develop important communication skills that they need in their professional career. The paper is expected to demonstrate that a student can apply the analytic techniques to solve a problem under study. The paper must include a statement of a problem, its analysis and a student’s conclusion.
FinalStateQualification Exam and MA Dissertation Defense
FinalStateQualification Exam is an interdisciplinary exam that evaluates students’ competences in Legal Translation and Interpreting Theory and Practice.
As part of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Translation degree, students complete an original research thesis into some aspect of legal translation as an academic discipline or as a professional practice. The thesis requires academic conventions for the student to apply both theoretical and practical modes of thought in his research. The thesis allows the student to build a personal research profile, and to reach his own conclusions about the process of translation. Once the thesis is completed, the student must submit and defend it to meet the requirements of his degree.
10. Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment is run on a credit accumulation basis and combines avariety of methods: translations, commentaries, essays, portfolios, tests, placement report, course papers and MA dissertation.
11. Career prospects include
· In-house translators and interpreters in industry, commerce, international organisations and translation companies and public institutions, freelance translators, translation project managers, or editors, revisers, proofreaders, terminologists, or specialists in translation tools.
· Language and culture mediators in the legal field.
· Trainers of Legal Translation and Interpretation for university-based academic degree programs and short term refresher courses.
· PhD students to conduct their research in General and Specialized Translation.